Regenerative Cell Institute, a renowned provider of stem cell therapy in Las Vegas, NV, highlights the role of extracellular vesicles in COPD and other lung diseases.
- Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can help maintain lung physiological homeostasis.
- EVs play a significant role in lung cancer pathogenesis and inflammatory airway diseases.
- Mesenchymal stem cell-derived EVs may have therapeutic applications in treating lung damage.
- Various triggers can change EV components and enhance EV emission in the airway.
Pathological disease processes and physiological homeostasis in the lung both result from complex, yet synchronized multicellular responses that are coordinated via endocrine and paracrine intercellular communication pathways.
Today increasing attention is being paid to the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in several lung diseases. In parallel, EVs in biological fluids such as edema fluid, mucus, sputum, pleural fluid, and epithelial lining fluid have been found to be promising candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis in lung disease.
What are Extracellular Vesicles (EVs)?
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small, membrane-bound, subcellular vesicles that contain cargo from parent cells, such as proteins, organelles, genetic information, or lipids. These cargos provide extracellular vesicles with functions or biologically active information by which they can reprogram their respective target cells.
Extracellular vesicles are released by different cells, including immune cells and respiratory cells. They encapsulate numerous molecules, including microRNAs and proteins, as modulators of intercellular communication.
For instance, cancer cell-derived EVs play critical roles in promoting the progression of tumors and modifying their microenvironment. On the other hand, noncancerous cell-derived EVs offer protective functions against injury (i.e. tissue repair and recovery) to maintain homeostasis.
Airway cells which are in contact with harmful substance may change their EV composition. Furthermore, it can modify the balanced reciprocal interactions with the surrounding mesenchymal cells. For example, in a stressed airway physiology, exposure to different stress triggers, such as cigarette smoke, infection, oxidative stress, or DNA damage can change the EV composition and enhance EV secretion, leading to changes in its surrounding microenvironment.
Extracellular Vesicles and COPD
Extracellular vesicles include ectosomes, apoptotic bodies, and exosomes.
Exosomes are produced by the inward budding of the membrane, consequent forming of multivesicular bodies, and the release of exocytosis. Researchers have found that exosomes from activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) can cause COPD damage.
Ongoing research is being done to further understand the role of EVS in COPD and other lung diseases.